Frequently Asked Questions
A printable version of the FAQ is available here.
FAQs for individual products are available here.
PURE's products contain a variety of ingredients from all over the world. The PURE Team is passionate about offering the purest ingredients possible, while maintaining reasonable product pricing. We use ingredients that are tested to ensure quality and effectiveness and our products are produced by cGMP regulated manufacturers.
Below are answers to some commonly asked questions about some of the ingredients in PURE's products.
QUESTION: Which products contain caffeine?
ANSWER: While the caffeine used in our products is natural, it still provides a stimulant effect and may not be appropriate for all individuals. Some contributors to caffeine content include cacao, green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, guarana, and others. The following is a list of products which contain natural caffeine-containing ingredients, as well as the estimated caffeine content for each product.
QUESTION: What is the source of caramel color?
ANSWER: PURE utilizes caramel color in GPS Pro-Arginine. Caramel color is created through a carefully controlled process of heating carbohydrates. The same chemical reaction that causes the pleasant aroma and browning of bread creates the caramel color used in products. 
QUESTION: Is Cascara sagrada habit-forming?
ANSWER: The dried and aged bark of cascara sagrada has been used for centuries to support healthy bowel activity. When used properly, it may help achieve regularity. Traditionally, cascara has only been used for short periods of time. Whether or not cascara is habit-forming has no substantial support from studies. Due to the limited evidence in the scientific literature, our product use recommendations reflect the traditional use of cascara sagrada and we recommend that it only be used for short periods.
We suggest using Liquid Cleanse or Capsule Cleanse for no more than 7-10 days consecutively unless under the direction of your doctor. Following use, wait 30 days before using the product again. Each person is different and may respond to the Cleanse differently. Therefore, be sure to monitor how you feel and work with your doctor to adjust these recommendations as needed. Excessive use of cascara sagrada may lead to dehydration and excessive electrolyte loss, which can adversely affect the heart and muscles.
QUESTION: What is Citric Acid?
ANSWER: Citric acid is organically found in many fruits and is naturally created in the human body. As an ingredient, however, it is created by feeding a common fungus simple carbohydrates. The byproduct made is citric acid. It is used to maintain proper pH and improve product flavor. Citric acid is generally produced by introducing simple carbohydrates from sugar beets, for example, to a common fungus.
QUESTION: Do your products contain corn or corn derivatives?
ANSWER: While our products do not directly contain corn, some of the commodity ingredients used, such as glucose polymers and fructose, could be made of corn, rice or another carbohydrate source. Furthermore, the original source of ingredients could be different from batch to batch; so safely consuming the products once does not guarantee there will be no future allergic reactions. Individuals with only mild allergies to corn may choose to use the products if they feel the benefits outweigh the consequences of potentially being exposed to a very minute amount of corn in the products.
QUESTION: Do your products contain dairy?
ANSWER: Our products that contain dairy are Coral Calcium, HealthTrim® Complete Shake, GPS Recovery, GPS Pro-Arginine, and PURE Café. Care should be taken if you suffer from a severe allergy that may cause a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. There is a possibility that other products may be cross contaminated with trace amounts of dairy.
Fructose, Sucrose and Glucose Polymers
QUESTION: Why do PURE's products contain fructose, sucrose or glucose polymers?
ANSWER: Where possible, PURE formulates its products to contain natural, low-calorie sweeteners like stevia, or no sweeteners at all. Fructose, sucrose, or glucose polymers are used to enhance sport performance, to improve the texture of the products, or to improve the palatability of a product.
Fructose is the primary sugar in fruit. It has a low glycemic index, yet is sweeter than other simple sugars. Fructose is used in a limited number of our products to provide a sweet flavor. It is found in larger amounts in the GPS products to enhance athletic performance. Studies have shown that intake of carbohydrate (sugars) during physical activity improves endurance. While glucose is the primary sugar used by cells during physical activity, studies have shown that using products containing both glucose and fructose improves performance and reduces stomach complaints more than using products that contain glucose alone. Furthermore, fructose, as part of a post-exercise drink, has been shown to increase the rate at which the body restores its carbohydrate stores (glycogen), potentially leading to faster recovery from exercise.
Sucrose is an easily-digestible sugar composed of both a glucose and a fructose molecule. As described above, when glucose and fructose are consumed together, absorption rates improve and may lead to enhanced performance. Sucrose (as pure cane sugar) is also used to improve the palatability of products like PURE Cafe.
Glucose polymers are another important source of carbohydrate in sport beverages. Glucose polymers are large molecules composed of many smaller glucose molecules. They provide more energy at a given osmolarity and are absorbed at a faster rate than glucose alone. Glucose polymers also improve the consistency of beverages made from powdered mixes. Glucose polymers are responsible for the creamy texture in products like ENERGY, HealthTrim® Complete Shake, and PURE Café.
QUESTION: Which products are gluten free?
ANSWER: Mila is labeled gluten free. It is produced from chia seeds, which do not contain gluten. Additionally, Acai, Goji, Noni, Mangosteen and Organic* Sulfur are also labeled as gluten free.According to the Food and Drug Administration, a product can be labeled “gluten-free” if the food does not contain an ingredient that is a type of wheat, barley, rye or any crossbreed; an ingredient derived from these grains which has not been processed in a way to remove gluten; or a process has been used to remove gluten and the resulting ingredient contains less than a regulated amount of gluten. While many of our products have no gluten-containing ingredients, they may be processed in facilities that also process gluten. Therefore, some cross contamination may occur. In the near future, other products will be labeled gluten free as we are able to ensure they are free from any gluten contamination. However, in order to keep product costs down, we have opted not to pursue an optional third party gluten free certification at this time.
ENERGY and Greens contain wheat grass and HealthTrim® Complete Shake contains barley grass, neither of which contain gluten; however, wheat grass and barley are ingredients which may have come in contact with other gluten containing grains and are at a high risk for cross contamination. Other products of ours may be made on machinery that also process gluten-containing ingredients, creating the possibility of cross contamination with gluten. If you are extremely sensitive to even smallest amount of gluten, we advise caution before using the PURE's products. While the potential for cross-contact with other gluten containing grains and ingredients is relatively low, if you have celiac disease or a severe gluten intolerance, we recommend consulting with your physician before using our products.
QUESTION: What PURE products contain iodine?
ANSWER: Daily Build, HealthTrim® Complete Shake, and GPS Recovery all contain potassium iodide. Metabolic Boost, ENERGY, and Greens all contain sea vegetables or sea vegetable extracts, which are significant sources of iodine. If you have an allergy to iodine, check with your doctor to see if these sources may trigger an allergic reaction.
QUESTION: Do your products contain magnesium stearate?
ANSWER: While our products were originally formulated to contain magnesium stearate, the most current formulation no longer contains magnesium stearate. Originally magnesium stearate was included in some capsules as a flow or anti-adhering agent. It kept the active ingredients in supplements from sticking to the machinery as they are packed into capsules. Magnesium stearate has since been replaced by rice flour or other natural ingredients that serve the same purpose.
Monoglycerides & Diglycerides
QUESTION: What are monoglycerides & diglycerides?
ANSWER: Monoglycerides and diglycerides are fats. They are made from oil and act as emulsifiers to provide a consistent texture and prevent separation of water and oil. They also serve as stabilizers, which give foods body and improve consistency. They are listed as safe by the Center for Science in the Public Interest.
QUESTION: Which products contain mushrooms?
ANSWER: The following products contain mushrooms:
- GPS Moomiyo Edge
Natural Flavor or Sweetener
QUESTION: What is in the natural flavors or natural sweeteners?
ANSWER: The natural flavors used in PURE's products are all isolated plant compounds that have not been chemically altered. For example, we may use stevia as a natural sweetener since it is a natural extract of the stevia leaf. PURE products have some very unique and proprietary formulas, some of which we would prefer not to divulge the exact source of our natural flavors for competitive reasons. Please be assured that we do our very best to provide the highest quality ingredients that will be the most beneficial for your body and absolutely do not use artificial sweeteners in any form.
QUESTION: What products are safe for those with nut allergies?
ANSWER: The following products contain tree nuts:
- HealthTrim Metabolic Boost - almond oil
- Liquid Cleanse - black walnut hull
There is a possibility, however, that other products of ours may be cross-contaminated with trace amounts of nuts. Care should be taken if you suffer from a severe allergy that may cause a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. For specific information about soy containing ingredients see the soy section.
QUESTION: Why is potassium sorbate used in PURE's products?
ANSWER: Potassium sorbate is a potassium salt of sorbic acid. Sorbic acid is an antimicrobial compound produced naturally by many plants. Although it exists naturally, the sorbic acid most commonly used in food production is chemically derived.
Potassium sorbate is highly effective at slowing the growth of many microorganisms. The Center for Science in the Public Interest lists this substance as safe for human consumption, with no known side effects. Potassium sorbate is also listed as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the FDA and is not associated with any known adverse health effects.
NOTE: Preservatives serve a valuable function in liquid supplements to prevent the growth of illness causing pathogens. We are currently working diligently to find natural replacements for potassium sorbate that will be stable in our products. For example, our most current Daily Build formula no longer contains potassium sorbate and uses a natural rosemary extract instead. We appreciate your patience and loyalty while we find the best possible solution.
QUESTION: Do your products contain fish, shellfish, or other sea foods?
- Daily Build (has a sea vegetable blend)
- HealthTrim® Complete Shake
- HealthTrim® Metabolic Boost
QUESTION: Why is sodium benzoate used in PURE's products?
ANSWER: Sodium benzoate is a sodium salt of benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is an antimicrobial compound occurring naturally in many plants and animals. Although it exists naturally, the benzoic acid most commonly used in food production is chemically derived.
Sodium benzoate is highly effective at slowing the growth of many harmful microorganisms and listed as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the FDA. While it has been noted that sodium benzoate may react with vitamin C to form benzene in some beverages, the FDA notes that the amount of benzene produced by this reaction is very minute.
NOTE: Preservatives serve a valuable function in liquid supplements to prevent the growth of illness causing pathogens. We are currently working diligently to find natural replacements for sodium benzoate that will be stable in our products. For example, our most current Daily Build formula no longer contains sodium benzoate and uses a natural rosemary extract instead. We appreciate your patience and loyalty while we find the best possible solution.
QUESTION: Do PURE's products contain soy?
ANSWER: Yes, some of our products contain soy. Soy is a great source of protein, isoflavones, and many other nutrients and has been recognized for its nutritive value for centuries. While soy is generally regarded as healthy, it may not be appropriate for everyone. The following is a list of products containing ingredients derived from soy:
- Soy protein isolate – a highly purified form of soy protein. Many of the non-protein constituents of soy are removed in this process including a significant portion of the isoflavones. Small amounts of isoflavones still remain, however. The following products contain soy protein isolate: HealthTrim® Complete Shake and GPS Recovery.
- Soy lecithin – Lecithins are emulsifiers that prevent the separation of fat and water. They are also important components of cell walls and rich sources of the vitamin choline. Lecithin is derived from soy, but the protein is intentionally removed to create lecithin. And, lecithin is so highly purified that any remaining protein would be negligible. The following products contain soy lecithin: HealthTrim® PURE Café and HealthTrim 360 Complete Shake.
- Soy fiber – Soy is a rich source of fiber. Many of the health benefits associated with a high fiber diet have been seen when individuals consume soy protein fiber. The processing of soy fiber removes many of the other constituents of soy. Accordingly, isoflavone content in soy fiber is very low.
Soy Protein Isolate
QUESTION: What is soy protein isolate?
ANSWER: See Soy.
Sulfur - Sulfa Allergy
QUESTION: If I am allergic to sulfa in medication, can I still take PURE's Organic Sulfur?
ANSWER: An allergic reaction to sulfonamide antibiotics (often just referred to as sulfa or sulfur antibiotics), such as sulfamethoxazole, is one of the most commonly reported allergic responses to medications. Though not as prevalent as reactions to antibiotics, other sulfonamide-containing medications may also trigger an allergic response. Much research has been done to determine the exact mechanism of the allergic responses to sulfonamide medications and the general conclusion is that the sulfur portion is not the cause. Organic Sulfur lacks any functional groups or metabolites thought to be responsible for the allergic reactions produced by sulfonamide medications. Furthermore Organic Sulfur has shown to be one of the least toxic substances in biology.
If you have an allergy to a sulfonamide medication, consult with your doctor before taking Organic Sulfur.
QUESTION: What is vegetable cellulose?
QUESTION: What is vegetable stearate?
ANSWER: Vegetable stearate is the name often given to magnesium stearate if it is derived from plant sources. Please see magnesium stearate for more information.
QUESTION: What is Xanthan Gum?
ANSWER: Xanthan gum is a plant-based material created by mixing simple carbohydrates with bacteria. It is used to help thicken, emulsify, and increase viscosity of liquids. It also helps create a more creamy texture. Typically corn or sugar beets are used to create xanthan gum.
Certifications and Studies
QUESTION: Are GPS products free of any banned substances?
ANSWER: While PURE's products are not formulated to contain any banned substances, some herbal remedies have been known to cause false positives on drug screenings. Please use due diligence and work with your healthcare provider if this a concern for you.
QUESTION: Are there any clinical trials on PURE's products?
We are still a young company and hope to conduct more trials in the future. Clinical trials are costly and time-consuming, however. Many studies have been conducted on the ingredients in our products and are available on the internet.
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
QUESTION: Are PURE's products FDA approved?
ANSWER: Dietary Supplement manufacturers and distributors are not required to obtain FDA approval prior to marketing dietary supplements. The FDA establishes stringent guidelines for the manufacture, distribution and sale of dietary supplements. These regulations help ensure the quality, purity and safety of supplements sold in the United States. PURE adheres to these FDA established procedures to help ensure that our customers are receiving the very best products available.
GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)
QUESTION: Do your products contain GMO ingredients?
ANSWER: PURE does its best to use only organic, wild-crafted, or cultivated without chemical, non-GMO ingredients. However, in a few cases, there are ingredients that may be derived from GMO sources. These ingredients are few and only a very small part of the overall product.
QUESTION: Are PURE's products organic?
ANSWER: At this time, only the essential oils and Acai are certified organic. Many ingredients in the products are certified organic and labeled as such in the nutrition fact panel list of ingredients. Other ingredients may also be grown, harvested, and processed in accordance with organic standards, but have not been certified organic and, therefore, are not labeled organic. In the organic industry, there is a costly and time-consuming process that the supplier AND manufacturer must go through to become “certified” organic. We are currently working to get more of our products certified as organic. However, because of the cost associated and the breadth of ingredients our products contain, some products may never be able to be certified. Please be assured that we use organic ingredients when possible, even if the finished product is not certified.
Third Party Verification
QUESTION: Are your products third-party verified?
ANSWER: Organizations such as the NSF, USP, or Consumer Labs offer third party verification services to ensure supplements contain what is stated on the label and are free from contaminants. Many of PURE's manufacturers are NSF Certified. The majority of our products are manufactured at NSF Certified facilities, including, but not limited to, Daily Build, Coral Calcium, Ionic Blend, Fasting Solution, Complete Shake, and PURE Café. All products are also manufactured in accordance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs). We also perform our own testing of the products and work diligently to provide the highest quality products possible.
QUESTION: What is the expiration date of my products?
ANSWER: There are many factors, which play into how long a product lasts, including proper handling and storage of product. Soon, all PURE's dietary supplements will display a “manufacture date” (MFG), which represents the day on which the product was manufactured. Displaying an actual expiration date on a dietary supplement requires a significant amount of testing. When a company changes manufacturers; processes, packaging materials and ingredients may also change. Whenever a change of any type is made to a FDA regulated product, additional testing is required to revalidate the expiration date of that product. This is a lengthy process and testing usually takes anywhere from two to three years.
The FDA does not allow the use of an expiration date until your shelf life testing has been completed, and in order to remain in compliance with FDA regulations, we will be using manufacture dates on all of PURE's Dietary Supplements. You should always exercise caution when using the product and use good judgment if the smell, flavor or consistency of the product is not consistent with other bottles or containers you’ve used in the past.
QUESTION: Can I open product capsules and mix with food or a beverage for consumption?
ANSWER: We have not tested any product to ensure its stability outside of the capsule and offer no guarantees of effectiveness if products are removed from the capsule. Most likely there would not be a significant difference in the effectiveness of any product if the capsule was broken open, mixed with a food or drink, and then quickly consumed. Avoid adding the products to foods or drinks and then cooking them, as the heat may destroy some ingredients in products.
QUESTION: Are PURE's products pasteurized?
ANSWER: Foodborne illness is often traced back to unpasteurized fruit or vegetable juices. Drinking bottled juices that are not pasteurized can pose serious health risks, especially to young children and the elderly who have reduced immune capacity. To protect the health of our customers, we use a process of UHT (ultra-high temperature) pasteurization. This process kills disease-causing microorganisms as well as, or better than, traditional methods and results in significantly fewer nutrient losses. UHT pasteurization heats juices to very high temperatures for only a few seconds, locking in flavor and better preserving beneficial nutrients. This exceptionally quick heating process minimally effects the nutritional value and taste of the juice while effectively destroying anything potentially harmful to the consumer.
Product Ingredient Sourcing
ANSWER: We source raw materials from all over the world in order to get the highest quality ingredients for our products.
QUESTION: Why do your products contain synthetic ingredients?
ANSWER: There is great debate regarding the use of synthetically sourced vitamins. Synthetic vitamins are made or created in a laboratory environment, while those extracted from a whole food source are considered natural. Eating whole foods while avoiding processed foods with added chemicals and sugar is the best plan for achieving and maintaining good health. PURE agrees that eating fruits and vegetables not only provides many of the essential vitamins and minerals you need, but also provides other health-promoting components like phytonutrients, fiber and antioxidants. However, for many individuals, it is very difficult to obtain the level of these nutrients required to achieve optimal health.
Rest assured that the significant majority of ingredients found in our products are obtained from natural sources. For example, while synthetically sourced beta carotene and vitamin E are available, PURE only uses natural forms of these nutrients. We use naturally derived ingredients when it is feasible.
However, in some instances it is not feasible to use natural sources. For example, B vitamins play many important functions in the body. Higher levels of these nutrients (above the RDA) may provide additional benefits, which simply cannot be achieved by eating fruits and vegetables or by consuming other natural sources (e.g. animal protein). Some individuals have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 and getting enough of this nutrient from diet alone poses a challenge.
Vitamin B12 is needed to make red blood cells and not having enough B12 is linked to a lack of energy and feelings of weakness. Methylcobalamin is one of two naturally-occurring forms of this vitamin. This form of vitamin B12 is found in red meat (3 oz. top sirloin beef contains 1.4 mcg or 23% DV); however, it is not economically feasible to actually extract enough methylcobalamin from meat and put it into a supplement. The current wholesale price for top sirloin is about $4.04 lb. In order to extract enough B12 to provide just 100% DV, you would need about 17.28 ounces (a little more than a pound) of meat and spend about $4.36 just for one serving. A single serving methylcobalamin vitamin B12 supplement that contains 2500mcg (41,667 % DV – this is NOT a typo) can be purchased at GNC for $21.99 (100 capsules). Now, if the methylcobalamin was obtained from a natural source, since it is often described as “naturally-occurring,” it would require (250,000mcg of B12 to fill 1 bottle).
Remember you need 3 oz. of meat to obtain 1.4mcg … in other words, 1 pound (16 ounces) of top sirloin to obtain 5.2mcg. So, in order to obtain this much methylcobalamin, you would need 48,077 pounds of meat to fill one bottle at the cost of $4.04 per pound. That’s a whopping $194,231 worth of beef required to fill one bottle of methylcobalamin. It does not take long to figure out that the methylcobalamin sold in supplements is not derived from natural sources. In fact, methylcobalamin sold in supplements is also created in a laboratory by further processing cyanocobalamin. The point here is not to discredit methylcobalamin; however, it is important to understand in the instance of B vitamins, it is simply not feasible to derive them from natural sources.
To create a product as nutritionally robust as Daily Build, but made exclusively from whole food extracts, would be so cost-prohibitive that few could afford it. It would take two cups of chopped red pepper, five oranges, or five cups of kale to provide the same amount of vitamin C found in Daily Build.
Some synthetic vitamins, such as folic acid, are also more bioavailable than the whole food variety. Even the much talked about and more biologically active form of vitamin B9 (folic acid) called 5-methyltetrahydorfolate is created synthetically in a laboratory. Others, like B12, whether cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin, are absorbed better since they are free from binders that exist in the whole food form. This is especially relevant for individuals with malabsorption disorders. In the case of vitamin B12, the synthetic form is actually more environmentally friendly, as well, since animal products as mentioned are the only significant sources of B12.
We are also aware of the disadvantages associated with synthetic vitamins; chief among them is the lack of phytonutrients, which again are found predominantly in fruits and vegetables. For this reason, our products contain whole foods like herbs, superfruits, and sea vegetables, as sources of phytonutrients. We are committed to supporting your health and wellness and strive to maintain a high level of purity with our products.
We are aware of the benefits of using whole food supplements, as well as the benefits of using synthetic vitamins and minerals. To create superior products and maximize the health benefits our customers achieve with them, we harness the benefits of both.
Vitamin and Mineral Excess
QUESTION: Is there a risk of vitamin or mineral toxicity (excessive intake) from combining your products?
ANSWER: Provided that PURE's products are used according to their recommended use and there are no other substantial dietary or supplement sources of the vitamin or mineral, healthy individuals may combine any PURE's products without a risk of excessive vitamin or mineral intake.
When formulating PURE's products, safety, including avoidance of vitamin and mineral toxicity, is our first priority. Some vitamins and minerals have a tolerable upper intake level established by the United States National Academy of Sciences. Consuming vitamins and minerals in excess of their upper intake level may increase the risk of toxic side effects. The amounts of vitamins and minerals with established upper intake levels are carefully monitored in all products. Amounts of each are controlled so the combination of dietary and PURE's supplement sources is not likely to exceed the tolerable upper intake level.
Conversely, other vitamins and minerals have no known toxic side effects and therefore do not have a tolerable upper intake level. Even extremely high intakes of these nutrients are not known to cause any adverse health effects. In these instances, maximum absorption of the vitamin or mineral becomes a primary consideration in determining the amount of these ingredients to put in the products. In the instance of vitamin B12, very large doses may improve the amount of B12 that is absorbed. Since there is no risk of toxicity, 8333% of the recommended daily value is provided in Daily Build to promote greater absorption. If you are taking any prescription medications or other supplement products, or have special health conditions, consult with your health care provider before starting any of PURE's products.
If you have any health conditions or concerns, or you are taking additional nutritional supplements or regularly consume foods high in certain vitamins or minerals, please work with your health care provider to determine which PURE's products will best help you meet your nutritional goals. PURE's products are not recommended for children.
QUESTION: Can PURE's products be taken with blood-thinning medication?
ANSWER: Always consult with your doctor before using PURE's products. Individuals taking blood thinning medications should be especially vigilant, as many herbs may naturally thin blood and some may also be sources of vitamin K. You may opt to work with a Naturopathic doctor or other practitioner who understands both herbal and conventional medicine to help you determine which products may be appropriate.
ANSWER: At this time, use of PURE's dietary supplement products by those under 18 years of age is not supported. Nutritional needs of children during growth and maturation are different from those of adults. Please consult with your doctor about appropriate supplements for children.
Existing Medical Conditions
QUESTION: Can your products be taken by individuals with an existing medical condition?
ANSWER: Always consult with your doctor before using PURE's products. Individuals with existing medical conditions should be especially vigilant, as some of PURE's products may make certain conditions worse or cause other complications. You may opt to work with a Naturopathic doctor or other integrative, licensed healthcare practitioner, who understands both herbal and conventional medicine to help you determine which products may be appropriate.
QUESTION: Can PURE's products be taken with medication?
ANSWER: Always consult with your doctor before using any PURE's product. Individuals taking prescription medications or other supplements should be especially vigilant, as some of PURE's products may intensify medications and render others ineffective. You may opt to work with a Naturopathic doctor or other practitioner who understands both herbal and conventional medicine to help you determine which products may be appropriate.
ANSWER: See existing medical conditions
Pregnant Women or Nursing Mothers
ANSWER: Recommended use of PURE products during pregnancy and lactation is not supported. Some herbs may pass through the placenta or in breast milk to developing babies. Some of the herbs used in the products have not been sufficiently studied to unequivocally guarantee their safety during such critical phases of development and should be used with caution. Please consult with your doctor about appropriate supplements for pregnant and nursing women.
QUESTION: Are PURE's products vegan?
ANSWER: Mila, Acai, Goji, Acai Plus, and Organic* Sulfur are currently labeled as vegan. Some of PURE's products, such as Liquid and Capsule Cleanse, GoYin, Greens, Probiotic, Alkaline Water Concentrate, Cell Water, Silver, Green Coffee Bean, Immune6, CardioClean, Noni, Mangosteen, Fusion, Metabolic Boost, Fasting Solution, Ionic Blend, Control, Moomiyo Edge, E2, Hydration, and ENERGY are void of animal or animal-derived ingredients in the formula.
 Roncero-Ramos I, Delgado-Andrade C, Alonso-Olalla R, Navarro MP. Influence of bread crust-derived Maillard reaction products on phosphorus balance in rats. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Oct;51(7):871-9.
 Lithgow RA. Cascara Sagrada in Constipation. Br Med J. 1883 Jul 14;2(1176):68.
 Tappy L, Lê KA. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev. 2010 Jan;90(1):23-46. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00019.2009.
 Abbiss CR, Peiffer JJ, Peake JM, Nosaka K, Suzuki K, Martin DT, Laursen PB. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion and ambient temperature on muscle fatigue development in endurance-trained male cyclists. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Apr;104(4):1021-8.
 O'Brien WJ, Rowlands DS. Fructose-maltodextrin ratio in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution differentially affects exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate, gut comfort, and performance. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Jan;300(1):G181-9.
 Rowlands DS, Swift M, Ros M, Green JG. Composite versus single transportable carbohydrate solution enhances race and laboratory cycling performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Jun;37(3):425-36.
 Décombaz J, Jentjens R, Ith M, Scheurer E, Buehler T, Jeukendrup A, Boesch C. Fructose and galactose enhance postexercise human liver glycogen synthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Oct;43(10):1964-71.
 Shi X, Passe DH. Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Oct;20(5):427-42.
 Mono-and Diglycerides. Center for Science in the Public Interest (ND). Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm#mono.
 Naidu AS. Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems. (2000) Boca Raton, Florida; CRC Press.
 Sorbic Acid. Center for Science in the Public Interest (ND). Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm#sorbicacid.
 Alphabetical List of SCOG Substances. Food and Drug administration, 06/21/2013. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm084104.htm.
 Wibbertmann A, Kielhorn J, Koennecker G, Mangelsdorf I, Melber C. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 26: Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate. (2000) Stuttgart, Germany; Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft.
 Alphabetical List of SCOG Substances. Food and Drug administration, June 21, 2013. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm084104.htm.
 Questions and Answers on the Occurrence of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages. Food and Drug Administration July 12, 2006. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/ChemicalContaminants/ucm055131.htm.
 Messina M. A brief historical overview of the past two decades of soy and isoflavone research. J Nutr. 2010 Jul;140(7):1350S-4S.
 Bhagwat S, Haytowitz DB, Holden JM. USDA Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods: Release 2.0. (2008). Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/isoflav/Isoflav_R2.pdf.
 Erdman JW Jr, Fordyce EJ. Soy products and the human diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 May;49(5):725-37.
 Bhagwat S, Haytowitz DB, Holden JM. USDA Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods: Release 2.0. (2008). Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/isoflav/Isoflav_R2.pdf.
 Brackett CC. Sulfonamide allergy and cross-reactivity. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2007 Apr;7(1):41-8.
 Parcell S. Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Feb;7(1):22-44.
 Talking About Juice Safety: What You Need to Know. US Food and Drug Administration, 22 March 2013. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm110526.htm.
 Finley JW, Deming DM, Smith RE. Food Processing: Nutrition, Safety, and Quality. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:452-461.
 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Relase 26. 7 December 2011. Available at http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/.
 Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate. Office of Dietary Supplements. December 14, 2012. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/.
 Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12. Office of Dietary Supplements. June 24, 2011. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/.